) is a reusable contactless stored value smart card for making electronic payments in online or offline systems in Hong Kong.
Launched in September 1997 to collect fares for the territory's mass transit system, the Octopus card system is the second contactless smart card system in the world, after the Korean Upass, and has since grown into a widely used payment system for all public transport in Hong Kong, leading to the development of Oyster Card in London.
The Octopus card has also grown to be used for payment in many retail shops in Hong Kong, from convenience stores, supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, on-street parking meters, car parks, to other point-of-sale applications such as service stations and vending machines.
The very earliest ammonoids were starting to appear in forms known as goniatites, and living alongside them were a strange off shoot of the nautiloids known as the bactritids.
They are so unusual that there is just one known from Illinois, one from France, a handful from Lebanon and a couple of jaw fragments from Japan and Vancouver Island.
In almost three hundred million years of octopod existence, the fossil record currently comprises just eight species in six genera - our entire record would fit inside a suitcase!
These fish have up to 100 light organs capable of emitting light beneath their bodies.
The hatchet fish, which has lived in the seas for millions of years with this perfect creation, never developed out of any other life form and has never turned into another one.
Very little is known about ancient octopus history, how they evolved and developed, or their lifestyle.